Nano-biotechnology aims at the development of nanotechnology-based tools for biomedical applications. The bottom-up and top-down approaches, typical of nanotechnology, applied to biology and biochemistry lead to the development of nanostructured materials and devices to improve several fields of current biomedical research like Biomolecular Delivery, advanced and high resolution Imaging and Regenerative Medicine. Nanotechnology investigation tools of materials and surfaces applied to biology increase the basic knowledge ofself-assembly of biomolecules (as described in Biointerfaces) and of cellular mechanisms (Cell Biology). In the view of providing “point-of-care” diagnostic toolsand state-of-the–art approaches towards personalized medicine,microscale devicesare developedas described in the sections Lab on Chip and Biosensors & Bioelectronics. Nano-biotechnological applications are supported by the Modeling, Theory and Computation reported in the section Computational Biology.