Plasmas for aerospace

Numerical codes implementing kinetic, PIC, DSMC and fluid dynamic approaches and including advanced state-to-state chemical-physical models are used for the investigation of plasmas of interest for aerospace applications, with particular attention to the simulation of non-equilibrium conditions in planetary entry conditions, dusty plasmas and plasma propulsion systems.

Hypersonic Flows

The reliable prediction of thermal loads on a spacecraft thermal protection systems during an high-speed entry in the atmosphere of Earth and other planets requires proper consideration of the non-equilibrium character of the flow, taking into account the elementary processes of atomic and molecular excitation, dissociation and ionization induced by collisions with heavy particles and electrons, in the state-to-state approach, extended also to more complex molecules as CO2. Radiation emitted by excited species gives a further contribution to the vehicle heat load, determined by photon transport equation.
Different non-equilibrium phenomena can be observed in the first part of the atmosphere, in very rarefied conditions, where the mean free path of particles is very long, comparable with the vehicle dimensions, needing particle simulations (DSMC). Other problems are related to the control and stability of hypersonic intercontinental flights based on SCRAMJET engine. Surface dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is a promising technique to avoid the use of mechanical actuators, not adequate for hypersonic flights. Particle and fluid simulations have been done for modelling DBD’s. Different approaches have been used to investigate geometries, ranging from homogeneous systems to 3D flows coupling self-consistently Boltzmann and Master Equations, Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE), Boundary Layer or Navier-Stokes Equations.

» Plasmas in high enthalpy flows

» Radiation transport

» Boundary layer flow

» Plasma actuators

Space Plasmas

Plasma is the most diffuse matter state in the Universe, where conditions are often very extreme, from very low to very high density. This research line starting from fundamental aspects has different applications.

» Dusty Plasmas
The interaction of space dust in the surrounding plasma determines charging/growing dynamics and transport of dust grains. This research line deals with the dynamics of dust above airless body surfaces, rings and planetesimal formation.

» Nanoconfined Atoms and Molecules
Atomic species in high-density plasma, as met in star, are investigated by means of quantum theory. Modification of the atomic structure has relevant effects in thermodynamics and transport properties.

» Astrochemistry
The study concerns the chemical kinetics of the formation of the first molecules and the effect of the distribution of energy on the reaction mechanisms in space environment.

» Scientific space mission design
The advances in theoretical and numerical study of plasma turbulence require constant validation from in-situ observations. This calls for the progressive improvement and specific design of scientific space mission, that need to provide the observables necessary for the validation of the theory. NANOTEC_Rende actively participates in the design and realization of ESA and NASA space missions, such as ESA/THOR, ESA/Solar Orbiter and NASA/GRIPS.

Plasma for Space Propulsion

Electric thrusters (Hall-effect and helicon discharges) and plasma-assisted combustion (SCRAMJET) are important for space transportation (satellite guidance, orbit transfer and deep space exploration). Different numerical approaches (particle-based models and chemical kinetics) have been used to investigate non-equilibrium conditions typical of plasma propulsion systems.

» LOx/CH4 for planetary exploration

» SCRAMJET for hypersonic intercontinental flights

» Hall-effect thrusters for satellite positioning and orientation, planetary missions

» Helicon plasma thruster for less expensive propellant

Facilities & Labs

HPC Cluster and Services @ Bari

People

francesco_taccogna

Francesco

Taccogna

CNR Researcher

Viso_donna

Iole

Armenise

CNR Researcher

ldpietanzaL.Daniela

Pietanza

CNR Researcher

Domenico_bruno

Domenico

Bruno

CNR Researcher

gcolonnaGianpiero

Colonna

CNR Researcher

savino_longoSavino

Longo

Associate Professor

esposito-fabrizioFabrizio

Esposito

CNR Researcher

mcapitelliMario

Capitelli

Associate Professor

adangolaAntonio

D’Angola

Associate Professor

Publications

  1. G. Colonna, G. D’Ammando, L. D. Pietanza, M. Capitelli, Excited-state kinetics and radiation transport in low-temperature plasmas, Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 57, 014009, (2015); doi: 10.1088/0741-3335/57/1/014009
  2. R. Pepe, A. Bonfiglioli, A. D’Angola, G. Colonna, R. Paciorri, An unstructured shock-fitting solver for hypersonic plasma flows in chemical non-equilibrium, Computer Physics Communications, 196, 179–193, (2015); doi: 10.1016/j.cpc.2015.06.005
  3. G. D’Ammando, M. Capitelli, F. Esposito, A. Laricchiuta, L. D. Pietanza, G. Colonna , The role of radiative reabsorption on the electron energy distribution functions in H2/He plasma expansion through a tapered nozzle, Physics of Plasmas, 21, 093508, (2014); doi: 10.1063/1.4895481
  4. M. Tuttafesta, G. Colonna, G. Pascazio, Computing unsteady compressible flows using Roe’s flux-difference splitting scheme on GPUs, Computer Physics Communications, 184, 1497–1510, (2013); doi: 10.1016/j.cpc.2013.01.018
  5. M. Capitelli, G. Colonna, L. D. Pietanza, G. D’Ammando, Coupling of radiation, excited states and electron energy distribution function in non equilibrium hydrogen plasmas, Review in Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy, 83–84, 1–13, (2013); doi: 10.1016/j.sab.2013.03.004
  6. G. Colonna, L. D. Pietanza, G. D’Ammando, M. Capitelli, Self-consistent coupling of chemical, electron and radiation models for shock wave in Jupiter atmosphere, AIP Conference Proceedings, 1501, 1400, (2012); doi: 10.1063/1.4769703
  7. F. Taccogna, D. Pagano, F. Scortecci, A. Garulli, Three-Dimensional Plume Simulation of Multi-Channel Thruster Configuration, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 23, 065034, (2014) ISNN: 0963-0252; doi: 10.1088/0963-0252/23/6/065034
  8. F. Taccogna, R. Schneider, S. Longo, M. Capitelli, Kinetic simulations of plasma thrusters, Plasma Source Sci. and Technol., 17, 024003, (2008) ISNN: 0963-0252; doi: 10.1088/0963-0252/17/2/024003
  9. I.Armenise, E.V.Kustova, On different contributions to the heat flux and diffusion in non-equilibrium flows, Chemical Physics, 428, 90-104, (2014); doi: 10.1016/j.chemphys.2013.11.003
  10. I. Armenise, P. Reynier and E. Kustova, Advanced Models for Vibrational and Chemical Kinetics Applied to Mars Entry Aaerothermodynamics, Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer, 30, 705-720, (2016); doi: 10.2514/1.T4708

Projects

HALL: Sistema di propulsione al plasma per la crescita dell’industria aerospaziale pugliese, Puglia FESR (2007-2013)

APULIA SPACE: Esperti nell’uso di tecnologia abilitanti nel settore dello spazio (2014-2016)

Latest News

Scholar-in-Training Award dell'AACR a Marta Cavo

Lecce, 15/01/2020
Marta Cavo, ERC-postdoctoral research fellow at the CNR Institute of Nanotechnology in Lecce (ERC-StG INTERCELLMED No., 759959, PI: Dr. Loretta L. del Mercato), have been selected to receive a Scholar-in-Training Award (USD $625). The Scholarship will support her attendance at the Conference on The Evolving Landscape of Cancer Modeling, organized by the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR), to be held on 2-5 March 2020 in San Diego (California), where she will present the work "Quantifying stroma-tumor cell interactions in three-dimensional cell culture systems". Link to the conference:

I° meeting TecnoMed Puglia

Lecce, 05 dicembre 2019 - Aula Rita Levi Montalcini - CNR NANOTEC Lecce

Si terrà domani, giovedì 05 dicembre, con inizio alle ore 14.00 presso l'aula Rita Levi Montalcini del Cnr Nanotec, il "I° meeting TecnoMed Puglia: Tecnopolo per la medicina di precisione". Il meeting mira a fare il punto sulle attività programmate, sullo stato di avanzamento e sugli highlights.

Puoi scaricare la locandina da qui

Jam session Nanotec... note di scienza su scala nanometrica

Lecce, 27 settembre 2019 - ex monastero degli Olivetani "CAR-T: l'alba di una nuova era"  con: Attilio Guarini (IRCCS Istituto Tumori “Giovanni Paolo II” di Bari)  introduce e modera: Marco Ferrazzoli (Ufficio Stampa CNR Roma) a cura di: Gabriella Zammillo 

Le CAR-T (Chimeric Antigens Receptor Cells-T) sono cellule modificate in laboratorio a partire dai linfociti T. Rappresentano una nuova strategia di cura che sfrutta il sistema immunitario per combattere alcuni tipi di tumore come linfomi aggressivi a grandi cellule e leucemie linfoblastiche acute a cellule B. Il prof Attilio Guarini, ematologo all’Istituto tumori Giovanni Paolo II di Bari, le definisce la “vis sanatrix naturae della antica medicina salernitana”, trattandosi del potenziamento dell’attività citotossica dei linfociti del paziente opportunamente ingegnerizzati per riconoscere e contrastare alcuni tipi di cellule tumorali.

 

Le CAR-T possono quindi essere definite un “farmaco vivente” proprio perché prodotto a partire dalle cellule dello stesso paziente aprendo così ad un nuovo mondo, considerato che i farmaci convenzionali sono prodotti da sostanze chimiche o, in alternativa, sono anticorpi prodotti in laboratorio dai biologi. Un trattamento estremamente complesso e costoso, non sempre applicabile, ma laddove possibile, dai risultati incoraggianti per le aspettative di vita. Lo sviluppo di nuove tecnologie per la produzione di CAR-T è parte integrante delle attività di ricerca condotte dal TecnoMed Puglia, il TecnoPolo per la Medicina di Precisione, coordinato da Giuseppe Gigli direttore del Cnr Nanotec di Lecce, e che nel suo nucleo fondatore vede anche l’IRCCS Istituto Tumori “Giovanni Paolo II” di Bari, il Centro di malattie neurodegenerative e dell’invecchiamento cerebrale dell’Università di Bari con sede presso l’Ospedale " G. Panico" di Tricase e la Regione Puglia.

 

L'evento apre la nuova stagione della rassegna divulgativa "Jam session Nanotec: note di scienza su scala nanometrica", un progetto Cnr Nanotec di Gabriella Zammillo, realizzato in collaborazione con Liberrima.

A condurre e moderare la serata, Marco Ferrazzoli, capo ufficio stampa dal CNR. Puoi scaricare la locandina da qui