Polaritons are light-matter particles formed by a strong interaction between the electronic excited states in a semiconductor and the light field of a microcavity.
Recently, they have attracted particular attention for their capacity to undergo phase transition to a collective coherent state in a similar way to the standard Bose-Einstein condensation demonstrated in cold atoms.
In the past years we have observed an incredibly rich phenomenology of quantum effects in fluids of polariton condensates, spanning from superfluid flow and persistent currents to the observation of a complex and important dynamics of vortex formation, stability and movement. More recently, thanks to the easy way of controlling and manipulating polariton states, as well as their fast dynamics, we could also observe that polaritons can be used as the perfect test-bed for the study of quantum phenomena which are hard to observe in other systems.
The aim of this line is the control of the fluid dynamics of quantum gases of polaritons, which are solid state particle which flow in the plane of the device much like a classical fluid, but retaining exceptional properties typical of the quantum realm. These include the control of the formation of vortices and their motion, fundamental understanding of the quantum turbulence and phase transitions, but also the possibility to implement such phenomena in future devices for all-optical logic. The optical setup to operate with quantum fluid of light is a laboratory in which the ultrafast spectroscopy is paired with techniques such as digital off-axis holography and second order correlations.