Quantum Fluid Dynamics

Polaritons are light-matter particles formed by a strong interaction between the electronic excited states in a semiconductor and the light field of a microcavity.
Recently, they have attracted particular attention for their capacity to undergo phase transition to a collective coherent state in a similar way to the standard Bose-Einstein condensation demonstrated in cold atoms.

In the past years we have observed an incredibly rich phenomenology of quantum effects in fluids of polariton condensates, spanning from superfluid flow and persistent currents to the observation of a complex and important dynamics of vortex formation, stability and movement. More recently, thanks to the easy way of controlling and manipulating polariton states, as well as their fast dynamics, we could also observe that polaritons can be used as the perfect test-bed for the study of quantum phenomena which are hard to observe in other systems.

The aim of this line is the control of the fluid dynamics of quantum gases of polaritons, which are solid state particle which flow in the plane of the device much like a classical fluid, but retaining exceptional  properties typical of the quantum realm. These include the control of the formation of vortices and their motion, fundamental understanding of the quantum turbulence and phase transitions, but also the possibility to implement such phenomena in future devices for all-optical logic. The optical setup to operate with quantum fluid of light is a laboratory in which the ultrafast spectroscopy is paired with techniques such as digital off-axis holography and second order correlations.

Highlights:

1. Our group observed for the first time the polariton backjet and its ultrafast dynamics, an unexpected penomenon consisting in the spectacular dynamical accumulation of the particles in a central spot quite denser and much times thinner than the originally created drop of polaritons, in  the time of few ps. Nature Communications (2015)

Immagine1

2. Our results on quantized vorticity include the achievement of the first direct excitation of an half-vortex state, consisting in the two spin components carrying a l=1 and l=0 vorticity, respectively,  and the observation of the 2D+t spiralling dynamics of the phase singularity in a weakly nonlinear regime.  Science Advances (2015)

Immagine2

3. We spatially resolved for the first time the sub-ps dynamics of directly excited Rabi oscillations, typical of such systems and consisting in the simultaneous excitation of the two polariton modes by the ultrafast laser pulse. This gives rise to a beating in the time domain, which is equivalent to an oscillating energy transfer between the photon and exciton field. Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 226401 (2014)

Immagine3

4. Using a coherent control between two counter-polarized exciting pulses, it is possible to convert the intensity oscillations associated to the Rabi splitting into polarization oscillations.

In this way the emission from the sample results into a continuously changing polarization state, swirling between opposite polarizations in the time of approximately 1 ps (as the Rabi period), and slowly fading into a fixed state in a 10 ps (as the lower polaritons lifetime)  Light Sci. Appl. 4, e350 (2015) .

H44

Facilities & Labs

Photonics Lab @Lecce

People

daniele_sanvittoDaniele

Sanvitto

CNR Senior Reseacher

lorenzo_dominiciLorenzo

Dominici

CNR PostDoc

francesco_todiscoFrancesco

Todisco

Associate PostDoc

suarezDaniel

Suarez

Associate PhD Student

dario_ballariniDario

Ballarini

CNR Researcher

paolo_cazzatoPaolo

Cazzato

CNR Technician

gianfrateAntonio

Gianfrate

milen_degiorgiMilena

De Giorgi

CNR Technologist

Viso_UomoAntonio

Fieramosca

Associate PhD Student

Viso_UomoDavide

Caputo

Associate PhD Student

Publications

  1. D. G. Suárez-Forero, G. Cipagauta, H. Vinck-Posada, K. M. Fonseca Romero, B. A. Rodríguez, D. Ballarini, Entanglement properties of quantum polaritons, Physical Review B, 93, 205302, (2016), ISSN: 1754-5692; doi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.205302
  2. L. Dominici, M. Petrov, M. Matuszewski, D. Ballarini, M. De Giorgi, D. Colas, E. Cancellieri, B. Silva Fernández, A. Bramati, G. Gigli, A. Kavokin, F. Laussy, D. Sanvitto, Real-space collapse of a polariton condensate, Nature Communications, 6, 8993, (2015), ISSN: 20411723; doi: 10.1038/ncomms9993
  3. L. Dominici, G. Dagvadorj, J. M. Fellows, S. Donati, D. Ballarini, M. De Giorgi, F. M. Marchetti, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, A. Bramati, G. Gigli, M. H. Szymaska, D. Sanvitto, Vortex and half-vortex dynamics in a spinor quantum fluid of interacting polaritons, Science Advances, 1, e1500807, (2015), ISSN: 2375-2548; doi: 10.1126/sciadv.1500807
  4. L. Dominici, D. Colas, S. Donati, J.?P. Restrepo Cuartas, M. De Giorgi, D. Ballarini, G. Guirales, J.C. López Carreño, A. Bramati, G. Gigli, E. del Valle, F.P. Laussy, and D. Sanvitto, Ultrafast Control and Rabi Oscillations of Polaritons, Physical Review Letters, 113, 226401 (2014), ISSN: 0031-9007; doi: 0.1103/PhysRevLett.113.226401
  5. D. Colas, L. Dominici, S. Donati, A.A. Pervishko, T.C.H. Liew, I.A. Shelykh, D. Ballarini, M. de Giorgi, A. Bramati, G. Gigli, E. del Valle, F.P. Laussy, A.V. Kavokin, D. Sanvitto, Polarization shaping of Poincaré beams by polariton oscillations, Light Science & Applications, 4, e350 (2015), ISSN: 2047-7538; doi: 10.1038/lsa.2015.123
  6. H.S. Nguyen, D. Gerace, I. Carusotto, D. Sanvitto, E. Galopin, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, J. Bloch, and A. Amo, Acoustic Black Hole in a Stationary Hydrodynamic Flow of Microcavity Polaritons, Physical Review Letters, 114, 036402 (2015), ISSN: 0031-9007; doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.036402
  7. A. C. Berceanu, L. Dominici, I. Carusotto, D. Ballarini, E. Cancellieri, G. Gigli, M. H. Szymanska, D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, On multicomponent polariton superfluidity in the optical parametric oscillator regime, Physical Review B, 92, 035307 (2015), ISSN: 1098-0121; doi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.035307
  8. J.C. López Carreño, C. Sánchez Muñoz, D. Sanvitto, E. del Valle, F.P. Laussy, Exciting polaritons with quantum light, Physical Review Letters, 115, 196402 (2015), ISSN: 0031-9007; doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.196402
  9. E. Cancellieri, T. Boulier, R. Hivet, D. Ballarini, D. Sanvitto, M. H. Szymanska, C. Ciuti, E. Giacobino, A. Bramati, Merging of vortices and antivortices in polariton superfluids, Physical Review B, 90, 214518 (2014), ISSN: 1098-0121; doi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.214518

Other Selected Publications

  1. D. Sanvitto, S. Pigeon, A. Amo, D. Ballarini, M. De Giorgi, I. Carusotto, R. Hivet, F. Pisanello, V. G. Sala, P. S. S. Guimaraes, R. Houdré,E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, A. Bramati, G. Gigli, All-optical control of the quantum flow of a polariton condensate, Nature Photonics, 5, 610 (2011) , ISSN: 1749-4885; doi: 10.1038/nphoton.2011.211
  2. A. Amo, S. Pigeon, D. Sanvitto, V. G. Sala, R. Hivet, I. Carusotto, F. Pisanello, G. Leménager, R. Houdré, E Giacobino, C. Ciuti, A. Bramati, Polariton Superfluids Reveal Quantum Hydrodynamic Solitons, Science, 332, 1167 (2011), ISSN: 1095-9203; doi: 10.1126/science.1202307

Projects

POLAFLOW: Polariton condensates: from fundamental physics to quantum based devicesStarting Grant ,FP7 – IDEAS – ERC-2012-StG, panel PE2 (2012-2017)

Latest News

Loretta del Mercato, si aggiudica l'ERC STARTING GRANT 2017

Loretta del Mercato, si aggiudica  l'ERC STARTING GRANT 2017

uno dei bandi più competitivi a livello europeo.

Lecce, 6 settembre 2017 

Lo European Research Council, che promuove la ricerca di eccellenza in Europa, nei giorni scorsi ha reso noti i nomi dei 406 vincitori della selezione ERC STARTING GRANT 2017, il bando tra i più competitivi a livello internazionale.

Su 3085 progetti presentati, 406 i progetti selezionati a cui sono stati destinati i 605 i milioni di euro di investimento. 48 le nazioni di provenienza dei ricercatori, soltanto 17 gli Italiani che condurranno le loro ricerche nel nostro paese, tra cui Loretta del Mercato, ricercatrice dell'Istituto di Nanotecnologia del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche di Lecce.

Un importante riconoscimento alla ricerca nel settore della medicina di precisione condotta presso il CNR NANOTEC, un indiscusso premio al talento della giovane ricercatrice che, a 38 anni e un contratto a tempo determinato, sarà a capo del progetto "Sensing cell-cell interaction heterogeneity in 3D tumor models: towards precision medicine – INTERCELLMED".

Il progetto, il cui obiettivo è affrontare uno dei problemi più spinosi della ricerca sul cancro, ovvero la difficoltà nel trasformare i risultati delle ricerche scientifiche in applicazioni cliniche per i pazienti e che vedrà coinvolto l'Istituto tumori "Giovanni Paolo II" di Bari, si propone di sviluppare nuovi modelli in vitro 3D di tumore del pancreas, alternativi ai modelli animali, ingegnerizzati con un set di sensori nanotecnologici che consentiranno di monitorare le interazioni delle cellule tumorali con il loro micorambiente, verificare l'appropriatezza delle terapie prima della somministrazione ai pazienti oncologici e quindi prevedere la risposta dei singoli pazienti ad una o più terapie antitumorali.

La realizzazione di queste piattaforme 3D multifunzionali consentirà di superare le evidenti differenze intercorrenti tra "modelli animali" ed esseri umani fornendo dati attendibili ed in tempi più rapidi rispetto ai dati ottenuti tramite lunghi e costosi procedimenti di sperimentazione sugli animali. Le tecnologie e i modelli sviluppati saranno estesi anche ad altre forme di tumori solidi nonché impiegati per studi nell'ambito della ingegneria tissutale e della medicina rigenerativa.

Rassegna stampa e Video

Zeiss Microscopy Technology and Complete Correlative Workflow

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Zeiss Microscopy Technology and Complete Correlative Workflow

Lecce, Italy, 2017 Wednesday July 19th 

CNR NANOTEC @ Lecce, Aula Seminari – pal. G, Piano Terra

Program - PDF

Zeiss, as microscopy technology leader, provides the unique complete imaging solution ranging from light, confocal, electron, ion and Xray modalities with a complete and straightforward correlative workflow. An overview of different technologies will be presented with a special focus on X-Rray microscopy.

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MCS 2017

International Workshop on Micropropulsion and CubeSats

Bari, Italy, 26 - 27 June 2017

Program - MSC2017

This narrow-field, invited-only meeting is the first attempt to bring together the Materials and Micropropulsion communities with a view to contribute to the development of the Global Materials and Micropropulsion Roadmap, and set such meetings to a regular basis.