Electroluminescent and photonic organic devices

OLEDs are devices which convert electricity into light through the process of electroluminescence. They are made by depositing an organic stack of tens of nanometers between two flat electrodes.  When an external voltage is applied to the device electrons are injected from the cathode and holes from the anode. Than they form excitons in the active layer which emit photons, with an energy equal to the energy gap of the active molecules. The structures are realized by doping the transport layers with electron-acceptor or electron-donating molecules (pin structure). Owing to pin structure we are able to finely tune the device without altering the electrical performances, thus allowing to work near the thermodynamic limit (applied voltage near the energy gap of emitting layer per unit charge) and to fabricate LED embedded into an electrically active micro-cavity. The research activities are focused on the following areas:

  1. Development of hybrid electroluminescent integrated devices
  2. Development of electroluminescent organic devices for industrial applications

Development of electroluminescent hybrid integrated devices

Electroluminescence is the process of generation of light by electrical injection of opposite carriers (electrons and holes) into a semiconductor. We have two main targets:

  1. Study of electroluminescence process into optical feedback

We are studying electroluminescence form organic compounds working in different light-matter coupling regimes: weak (WC), strong (SC) and ultrastrong (USC). In the WC the Fermi golden rule is changed by managing the photonic density of states (and the related Purcell effect) through the placement of the active material into an optical feedback (i.e. a dielctricmicrovavity).  We have exploited this effect to improve the efficiency of white OLEDs owing to the coupling of three metal microcavities. ITO-free devices with anefficiecy of 40lm/W in a full coupled microcavity diodes even on flexible substrateshave been developed.

SC and USC regimes are achieved when the dipoles exchange energy with the cavity at a rate larger than the losses from the cavity and the dephasing of the excitons. In this regime the energy of the cavity and the molecules change generating two hibrid states called polaritons. We work on the study of EL process from polaritons with the aim of developing polariton devices and Bose Einstein condensation under electrical injection.

 Development

a)       Study of electroluminescence process in perovskites(Pero-LEDs)

 

We realize LED based perovskite (Pero-LEDs) based on metal-halide perovskite materials, hybrid organic-inorganic compounds, which are recently making inroads in photovoltaics. These materials feature a unique combination of properties: they can be easily be fabricated, both from solution or thermally evaporated, on any substrate and have bright, colour tunable optical emission, like organics, but their electronic conduction properties resemble those of inorganic semiconductors, with large carrier mobility and diffusion lengths. Unfavorably, the important advantages offered by wet processability are accompanied by disconcerting limitations. It is well known, in fact, how the perovskite morphology, strongly depending on the growth conditions, severely impacts on the device performances, causing an intrinsic irreproducibility of the material chemical-physical properties. Therefore huge efforts have been devoted to the optimization of morphology and processing conditions, in particular by controlling the interactions of the material precursors in solution or with the substrate.A further constraint factor in the spin-coated devices is that the number of layers allowed are limited by their solubility in orthogonal solvents. The fabrication of hetero-structured devices may open ways to increase the number of layers allowing to decouple transport from optical characteristics, thus increasing the overall performances of the device, as already shown in small molecules based Organic LEDs (OLEDs). Vacuum-based deposition represents an excellent technique to achieve high-purity layers and potentially allows for a fine control over the stoichiometry and thickness of the perovskite films, thus their reproducibility. Recently we reported for the first time a fully vapor-deposited hetero-structure perovskite light emitting diode exploiting p-i-n technology, as the first step of an innovative approach to electroluminescent perovskite-based devices embedding electrical doping. The approach presented would potentially lead to a better control of the transport and electroluminescent properties of the device, as well as to the possibility of a wide industrial application. Acting on kinetic and thermodynamic conditions during the thermal deposition we study the impact of morphological and structural characteristics on the electro-optical behavior of the perovskite active layer. Several perovskites are explored in infrared and visible windows of electromagnetic spectrum. Analysis of optical characteristics at high current density both in cw and pulsed conditions is done to understand the bimolecular processes responsible for the light emission in perovskites and the aging of the device, which are fundamental to reach the population inversion and lasing. Indeed contrary to organics, in perovskite materials optical recombination is a bimolecular process, not requiring the formation of an exciton. Therefore the radiative efficiency increases with density, as the probability for electrons and holes to find a recombination partner increases, and becomes the dominant recombination channel, with the emission quantum yield approaching unity.

Development of electroluminescent organic devices for industrial applications

 

 Development2

 

Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are very promising type of technologies having a wide range of applications. In less than two decades, they have become a commercial reality in display technology (AMOLED). The development of large area white OLEDs (WOLEDs) for general lighting with an almost perfect Rendering Colour Index (CRI) near 100 and a  theoretical efficiency of  200 lum/W, is still a challenge.

More recently, Organic Light Emitting Field Effect Transistor (OLEFET) combining in a single device, the current modulation functions and electrical switching properties of a field effect transistor with light generation capabilities of an organic LED, have been investigated for display applications.

Different scientific approaches are followed to fabricate large area white OLED and efficient OLEFET for practical applications:

– The design and fabrication of a p-i-n microcavity structure (p-i-n MC-OLED) offers the possibility to optimize the outcoupling efficiency and improve the output luminance, through the amplification of the light emission next to the resonance wavelength of the single or coupled microcavity, without changing its electrical behaviour. (link to Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) Kurt. J. Lesker Cluster Tool facility)

– Study of supramolecular aggregates in organic semiconductors, particularly molecular crystal structures, and their integration in OLED devices, in order to minimize typical annihilation phenomena and improve device efficiency at high luminance. (link to Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) Kurt. J. Lesker Cluster Tool facility)

– Implementation of trilayer p-i-n ambipolar OLEFET structure. The doping level results crucial to the capability of emitting light, as well as to the electrical characteristics of the device. The hole and electron current profiles can be tailored in order to create simultaneous flows of opposite charges near and across the active layer, featuring light emission across the whole channel area. Device dimension range from 100um down to a few tens of nanometers. (link to Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) Kurt. J. Lesker Cluster Tool facility; nanofabrication facility)

Facilities & Labs

Device Lab @Lecce

People

Vincenzo_maioranoMaiorano

Vincenzo

CNR Tecnologist

Marco_pugliesePugliese

Marco

Associate PostDoc

Fabrizio_marianoFabrizio

Mariano

Associate PostDoc

Armando_GencoArmando

Genco

PHD Student

Sonia_caralloSonia

Carallo

CNR Technician

Marco MazzeoMarco

Mazzeo

Associate Resercher

Publications

  1. Genco , F. Mariano , S. Carallo , V. L. P. Guerra , S. Gambino , D. Simeone , A. Listorti, Silvia Colella , G. Gigli , and M. Mazzeo FullyVapor-DepositedHeterostructured Light-EmittingDiodeBased on Organo-Metal Halide Perovskite, Advanced Electronic Materials, 1500325 (2016)  DOI: 10.1002/aelm.201500325.
  2. Mazzeo, A. Genco, S.Gambino, D. Ballarini, F. Mangione, O. DI Stefano, S. patanè, S. Savasta, D. Sanvitto, G. Gigli, Ultrastrong light-matter coupling in electrically doped microcavity organic light emitting diodes, Applied Physics Letters Vol: 104,Issue:23 (2014)
  3. Accorsi, S. Carallo, M. Mazzeo, A. Genco, S. Gambino, G. Gigli; A colour tunable microcavity by weak-to-strong coupling regime transition through a light-switchable material Chemical communications Vol: 50,Issue:9(2014)

Other selected Publications

  1. Gambino, S.; Mazzeo M. Genco, Di Stefano, O; Savasta, S; Patane, S ; Ballarini, D ; Mangione, F ; Lerario, G; Sanvitto, D ; Gigli, G Exploring Light-MatterInteractionPhenomena under UltrastrongCoupling Regime, ACS PHOTONICS  (2014) Volume: 1   Issue: 10   Pages: 1042-1048
  2. Mazzeo, F. Mariano, A. Genco, S. Carallo, G. Gigli, High efficiency ITO-free flexible white organic light-emitting diodes based on multi-cavity technology, Organic electronics Vol: 14,Issue: 11 (2013)
  3. Maiorano, A.Bramanti, S.Carallo, R.Cingolani and G.Gigli, Organic light emitting field effect transistor based on ambipolar p-i-n layered structure Appl. Phys. Lett., 96, 133305 (2010)
  4. Mazzeo*, F. Della Sala, F. Mariano, G. Melcarne, S. D’Agostino, Y.Duan, R. Cingolani and G. Gigli Shaping white light through electroluminescent fully organic coupled-microcavities, Advanced Materials, 22, pg. 4696 (2010)

Patents

1) Organic light-emitting diode with microcavity including doped organic layers and fabrica-tion process thereof – , B.Dussert-Vidalet, M.Mazzeo, G.Gigli, M.BenKhalifa, F.DellaSala, V.Maiorano, F.MarianoUS 2011079772 (A1)  07/04/2011 ; N° US8969853 (B2) del 03/03/2015

Also published

  1. FR2926677 (A1) 24/07/2009 ; FR2926677 (B1) del 25/04/2014
  2. EP2235763 (A1) del 06/10/2010
  3. WO 2009090248 del 23/07/2009
  4. CA 2712251 23/07/2009
  5. KR 20110009080 (A) del 27/01/2011; KR101585018 (B1) del 13/01/2016
  6. CN 101978527 del 16/02/2011
  7. JP 2011510441 (A) del 31/03/2011 ; JP5594777 (B2) del 24/09/2014
  8. BRPI0906421 14/07/2015

2)Organic light emitting field effect transistor-V.Maiorano, G.Gigli, EP2545599 A1  16/01/2013

Also published

  1. IT RM20100107 13/09/2011
  2. WO 2011110664A1 15/09/2011

Project

MAAT: Molecular NAnotechnology for HeAlth and EnvironmenT ,  PON R&C 2007-2013 –  (2012-2015)

FT_WOLED: Flexible Transparent White Organic Light Emitting DeviceExecutive Programme for scientific and technological cooperation between Italy and China (2013-2015)

PHOEBUS: Plastic tecHnologies for the realization of Organic solar cells and high Efficiency Bright and Uniform Sources,  (2009-2011)

OLEDs for lighting, Project MIUR FAR 297 (2006-2009).

OLLA: Organic light emitting diodes for lighting, EUFP6 IP, (2005-2008)

Latest News

DIAGNOSTICS OF BRAIN DISEASES VIA STEM CELLS

 01 luglio 2019 - ore 14:15

 

Cnr Nanotec Lecce

 

Realizzato nell'ambito delle attività del progetto "TecnoMed Puglia - Tecnopolo per la medicina di precisione", il meeting è dedicato allo studio delle malattie neurodegenerative: dai nuovi biomarcatori alle piu recenti modellizzazioni, per una migliore comprensione dei meccanismi di base e quindi per lo sviluppo di terapie sempre più ritagliate sul singolo paziente.

EIT RawMaterials Roadshow

21 giugno 2019 ore 09:00 – 15:00

   

Lecce, Aula Fermi Edificio Aldo Romano, Campus Ekotecne, Via Lecce-Monteroni

   

Farà tappa a Lecce il prossimo 21 giugno, presso l’Aula Fermi dell’edificio IBIL all’interno del Campus Ecotekne, l’EIT RawMaterials, la piattaforma per il sostegno all’innovazione finanziata dall’Istituto Europeo di Innovazione e Tecnologia (EIT).

   

L’EIT ha creato le cosiddette KIC – Knowledge Innovation Community, comunità che mirano alla promozione dell’innovazione e della formazione in Europa in settori cruciali, sostenendo l’imprenditorialità e favorendo il passaggio di nuove idee dalla fase di incubazione al mercato.

 

La EIT RawMaterials si impegna ad affrontare la sfida globale dell’approvvigionamento delle materie prime in Europa attraverso programmi e progetti che mirano allo sviluppo di tecnologia nell’intera catena di valore delle materie prime: dall’esplorazione delle risorse, all’industria mineraria, dai processi metallurgici alla sostituzione delle materie prime critiche o tossiche, dal riciclo dei materiali dei prodotti a fine vita sino alla progettazione di prodotti per l’economia circolare. Nell’ambito dei programmi di sviluppo a livello regionale, la EIT RawMaterials ha creato un Hub nella Regione Puglia coordinato da ENEA, al fine di incrementare il coinvolgimento degli ecosistemi locali nelle attività della KIC e del suo partenariato.

 

Il MedinHub avrà inoltre l’obiettivo di raggiungere nuove organizzazioni e promuovere la partecipazione delle industrie e delle PMI più innovative, nonché il coinvolgimento delle prestigiose università e centri di ricerca dell’area.

 

Link per la registrazione:

https://www.lyyti.in/EIT_RawMaterials_Roadshow__Lecce_9500

NanoInnovation 2019

Il Cnr Nanotec è tra i protagonisti di “NanoInnovation 2019", la manifestazione organizzata dall’Associazione italiana per la ricerca industriale (Airi) e dall’Associazione Nanoitaly, ospitata a Roma dall’11 al 14 giugno. Rivolta a ricercatori, imprenditori, industrie, enti di ricerca, NanoInnovation 2019 si propone come la più importante conferenza sulle nanotecnologie e le tecnologie abilitanti in Italia.

 

Il programma dettagliato dell’evento è disponibile al linkhttp://www.nanoinnovation2019.eu/

Tra i partecipanti del Cnr Nanotec:

- Clara Guido, “Non-viral gene delivery using polymeric NPs”;

- LucaLEUZZI, “Overview del progetto ATOM”;

- AlessiaCEDOLA, “La tomografia X e le sue applicazione: dai beni culturali all'industria elettronica”;

- FrancescoMATTEUCCI, “Nanodispositivi per il fotovoltaico integrato”;

- Giuseppe Valerio Bianco, “Chemical strategies to improve CVD graphene’s functionalities in technological applications”